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Hence, their children, “,” had to be Black and Native American.For example, Jean Baptiste Pont du Sable, who founded Chicago was a Creole.
For Indians, this ceremonial gesture was as serious as business ever gets: Smoking the pipe represents a sacred trust between the two groups of people, that members of each group are bound to help members of the other under any circumstance. Even though six outposts were established within the first few years, few “settlers” were willing or able to do even the minimal amount of work required to produce their own food.
There is still a large community of Creoles in Louisiana today. It is said that, as intermediaries between the Blacks and the whites, they got European instruments into the hands of African musicians and thereby facilitated the development of jazz.
In New England we find Cape Verdians, Africans who migrated here in the 18th and 19th century aboard whaling ships that stopped in Cabo Verde, an island off the coast of West Africa, to resupply and pick up extra hands.
He also talks about “,” areas of the country where large numbers of enslaved Africans had lived in the midst of a surrounding sea of Europeans and Native Americans.
After the Civil War they gradually intermixed with the surrounding peoples creating enclaves of individuals of what Frazier calls “.” He identifies Ahoskie, North Carolina and Mahwah, New York as just two examples.If ever a group of people was so incapable of living independently as to justify the enslavement of others more capable, it was these French trespassers.