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576) in Gaul (in Duchesne, "Origines du Culte", 2d ed., Paris, 1898, p. The scanty state of our knowledge about the early Roman Mass accounts for the fact that we have no allusion to the Sanctus till it appears in the first Sacramentaries. Clement and then the use of Africa (always similar to Rome ) leave no doubt that at Rome too the Sanctus is part of the oldest liturgical tradition. They are always named at length and with much solemnity as those who join with us in praising God. It was a dramatic effect that never had any warrant. Meanwhile the deacon and subdeacon go up to the right and left of the celebrant and say the Sanctus in a low voice with him. While the choir sings the celebrant goes on with the Canon.

L., LVIII quote it in Africa ; Germanus of Paris (d. The Sanctus is sung by the people in "Apostolic Constitutions", VIII, XII, 27 (Brightman, "Eastern Liturgies ", 18-19) and so in almost all rites. The custom of waiting till after the Elevation and then adding the Benedictus, once common, is now abolished by the rubric ("De ritibus servandis in cantu missæ, VII) of the Vatican Gradual. The hand-bell is usually rung at the Sanctus; but at Rome there is no bell at all at high Mass.

In Latin it is the "Tersanctus" or simply the "Sanctus". The Mozarabic Sanctus is almost the Roman one; but it has for the first Hosanna : "Osanna filio David" (more literally Matthew 21:9 ) and the additional exclamations "Agyos, agyos, agyos Kyrie o theos" (P. Milan has one remnant of this on Holy Saturday (Duchesne, ib. At Rome the Sanctus is described in "Ordo Rom.", I, as "hymnus angelicus, id est Sanctus" (P. This is merely part of a general tendency to entrust music that was getting more ornate and difficult to trained singers. In the medieval local rites the Sanctus was often "farced" (interpolated with tropes ), like the Kyrie and other texts, to fill up the long musical neums .

In all Eastern rites only the sentence that immediately introduces the Epinikion is said aloud, as an Ekphonesis. L., LXXXV, 548) and so coming almost at once to the words of Institution: This prayer, which varies in each Mass, is called "Post Sanctus", or "Vere Sanctus". So also "Ordo Rom.", II, which notes that Hosanna is sung twice (ib. We do not know at what moment the chant of the Sanctus was taken from the subdeacons and given to the schola cantorum . V" implies that the subdeacons no longer sing the Sanctus (P. In "Didache", X, 6, it occurs as a liturgical formula ("Hosanna to the God of David ").

But, apparently from the beginning of its Christian use (so already Clem. It may be noticed that of the many chants of the Sanctus in the Gradual the simple one only (for ferias of Advent and Lent, requiems and the blessing of palms ) continues the melody of the Preface and so presumably represents the same musical tradition as our Preface tone. In all liturgies the Hebrew for "hosts" sabaoth ) is kept, as in the Septuagint (Vulgate, "exercituum"). Then follows the acclamation of Palm Sunday in Matthew, xxi, 9. cxvii, 25-26; but the source of the liturgical text is, of course, the text in the Gospel.

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